Politics 147: Education Politics and Policy
Pomona College, Spring 2021
Prof. David Menefee-Libey

Mondays and Wednesdays 11:00 am - 12:15 pm (California time)
via Zoom (address on MyPomona portal and course Sakai page)

Office: via Zoom (address on course Sakai page) until campus evacuation ends. Carnegie is closed to students.
Office Hours: Mondays 3:00-5:00, Thursdays 9:00-11:00 (California time), and by appointment. Signup via Google doc link from course Sakai page.
e-mail: DJML4747(at)pomona(dot)edu, DMenefee(at)pomona(dot)edu, or David_Menefee-Libey(at)pomona(dot)edu (mail sent to any of these ends up in the same account)

Access a live version of this syllabus online at https://pages.pomona.edu/~djml4747/Education.html

Find a list of sites with course-related information, data, and research at https://pages.pomona.edu/~djml4747/DMLresources.html. (Note: there are a lot of links on that page, and I do my best to keep them up to date. Please let me know if you run into a dead link, or if you have a suggestion of something I should add.)

Table of Contents for This Syllabus:
Go to Course Description and Goals
Go to Course Requirements, Evaluations, and Deadlines
Go to Class Schedule and Assignments

Course Description and Goals

This advanced course is about elementary and secondary education (often called "K-12," for kindergarten through 12th grade) in the United States, the political debate about its quality, and competing strategies for its improvement.  Often, the course will focus on California, where Pomona College is and where more than one-tenth of all US children live and go to school.

We are doing this course together at an extraordinarily challenging time for education and schooling at all levels in the United States and the world. (You probably already knew that, given that you're reading this syllabus on a computer screen somewhere far from Claremont.) Many schools are closed, and those that remain open look very different from January 2020, when students last returned to school after a winter break. While there is very little systematic policy research about education and schooling in the Covid era, we will read some current policies and journalists reporting on the ongoing crisis, and Covid will figure in many of our discussions and some of the papers you write this semester.

There is much to study in education politics and policy beyond Covid, of course. Particularly since the publication of A Nation at Risk in 1983, Americans have dedicated tremendous attention, effort, and resources to reforming and improving public schools.  Those reforms have continued to evolve amid deep, ongoing conflicts and disagreements among Americans about what children should learn and how, how schools should best be organized and governed, what schools children should attend, how much schooling should cost and who should pay it, and how to evaluate schools (or teachers, or students, or learning).

This course will consider both the politics and the policy of schooling.  On the political side, we will explore the debate over the purposes of education.  We will especially focus on four of the most important competing purposes commonly advocated by large numbers of Americans: preparing all children for the opportunities and responsibilities of democratic citizenship, preparing all children for self-sufficient and productive participation in the global economy, helping all individual children compete with their fellow Americans (and humans!) for wealth and status, and (for a large minority of Americans) helping to support white supremacy and patriarchy. We will also focus on the way "the education establishment" of schools, districts and state education departments is organized, and current challenges to those institutional arrangements such as private schools, vouchers, and especially charter schools.  Finally, we will focus on the individuals, groups and organizations who compete to control schools, and investigate how and where they seek to advance their interests and values.

On the policy side, we will explore what schools actually do.  We will do that in traditional academic ways: reading, discussing and writing about research on curriculum, instruction, teaching, school organization, and some of the myriad programs that schools provide to American children.  You will also do some research of your own, identifying, researching, and writing about an elementary or secondary school in the Southern California region.  We will discuss your case studies, in part to see whether and how your findings relate to what we read in our assignments and elsewhere.  We will also explore policy making for educational reform: who enacts those policies, how they go about doing it, and what happens when policies enter schools and classrooms.

This is primarily a social science class.  I will expect you to learn several empirical theories about how the politics of education policy actually works in the real world.  Further, I will expect you to develop your ability to derive and test empirical hypotheses from those theories with observations and data about the real world.  Social science is also a normative field: I will expect you to learn some normative theories about what is valuable and important in education policy, and to develop your ability to apply those theories rigorously to the observations and data you encounter this semester.  Our policy discussions will often rely heavily on quantitative and qualitative data gathered by researchers and your fellow students, and I presume that all enrolled students will comfortably and carefully analyze such data in a disciplined way.  You should demonstrate a low tolerance for BS, even BS you find comforting or that you'd like to agree with.  Conversely, you should show respect for reliable data you find discomforting or that you'd like to disagree with.  If you do not want to do that, you shouldn't take the class.

This course also fulfills the Pomona College General Education Breadth Requirement for Analyzing Difference. As the college Catalog says, "Analyzing Difference courses are primarily focused on a sustained analysis of the causes and effects of structured inequality and discrimination, and their relation to U.S. society. Such courses will make use of analyses that emphasize intersecting categories of difference." Throughout this semester, we will learn about ways that American elementary and secondary schooling is deeply embedded in our society, cultures, and economy. Schooling in America can and does build, reproduce, sustain, and sometimes challenge discrimination and inequality on many dimensions. We will primarily focus on white supremacy as a major driver of education politics and policy in the United States, but we will also consider other issues of race, income and class, as well as language and immigration status, in our discussions of difference and inequality. By the end of the semester, you should have much greater sophistication using tools from the field of political science to analyze difference systematically and rigorously.

Finally, the class will be somewhat reading intensive.  I want you to continue to develop your ability to read critically as you work through the assignments and your own investigations.  This will require that you read "with the grain," that you read to understand what the authors are trying to say and how their work relates to others you encounter.  It will also require that you read "against the grain," to rigorously assess the strengths and weaknesses of authors' work and to consider what arguments or data might challenge them.  I expect we will all bring such diverse readings to our discussions and writing.

I should note that this course is always a work in progress. I will be developing some of its specific content as the semester unfolds, and I will continue to change and/or add new readings to this syllabus as I (or you) find them. I will do my best to call your attention to changes as I make them.

I have ordered only a single book for this course through the Huntley Bookstore: I will supplement these books frequently with materials on the Claremont Colleges' Sakai site and on the Internet. Further, I will expect that you at least skim Education Week and a good daily newspaper (I suggest The Los Angeles Times, The New York Times, the Washington Post, or The Wall Street Journal. If you don't already know how to, you should learn how to access all of these publications free when you are logged into the Claremont Colleges Library page.) You should also do research and reading on the internet, both through links that I will provide and through links you will find yourselves.

Back to Table of Contents

Politics 147: Education Politics and Policy
Pomona College, Spring 2021
Prof. David Menefee-Libey

Requirements, Evaluations, and Deadlines

Assignments and Grading: You will have many different kinds of assignments.

This course includes a variety of assignments, and I will do my best to give you some individual feedback on each of these dimensions:

1. Class participation (10% of grade). You should do the assignments and prepare yourself to discuss them during class meetings.  The success of our meetings on Zoom will depend in part on active participation in discussion. Being a student in a liberal arts college means you have a responsibility not only to learn for yourself, but to engage and teach each other through observation, questions, comments, constructive criticism and analysis. I will therefore especially value contributions to our discussions which:

In other words, we all need to talk, but don't just talk for the sake of talking.  Think about what you and others in the class are saying.

2. Weekly Sakai Forum postings (10%). Each week at least one hour before class, you will post a comment on the Sakai Forum in response to one of that week's assigned readings. I'll split the class up into Monday and Wednesday groups to spread the postings across each week. Your classmates and I will read and perhaps comment on them as we prepare for class discussion each day. Weekly postings cannot be made up after absences (because nobody will see them), but I will excuse students for legitimate reasons.

3. Paper 1: A Covid report, paired with an analytic essay (30%) Students will join in groups of three or four to do collaborative case studies of school districts and schools in the United States. A description of the assignment will be linked to this sentence, and I'll develop instructions for the case study more in the first weeks of the semester. Each group will identify a school district with an accessible web page explaining its responses to Covid, and together will prepare a brief report on the district. Each student will choose one (traditional public or charter) school in that district to report on. I'll also pass out prompts for a claim-based essay linking your findings with course readings up to that point.

4. Papers 2 and 3: Claim-based essays (25% each). I'll send out a detailed assignment sheet for these as well.

All papers must be submitted in your Sakai "dropbox" by 5:00 pm on the dates below.  (Please don't ask Sakai to send me an email notifying me of your submission.)  Important: the file name of your the paper matters when you post it to Sakai.  Format it like this: Paper#.Education.LastName.doc, as in Paper1.Education.Floyd.doc.  This may seem picky and trivial, but I download hundreds of papers each semester and I lose track of papers that aren't named this way.

Milestones:

Paper 1: School case studies and essays: Friday, February 26
Paper 2: Claim-based essay: Friday, April 2
SENIORS' Paper 3: Claim-based essay: Monday, May 3
NON-SENIORS' Paper 3: Claim-based essay: Monday, May 10

Grace Days: These deadlines are real and I will penalize late papers one Pomona grade point per day unless I announce otherwise in class.  I am generous with paper extensions, but I will only grant extensions in advance, so if you need an extension, ask for one. Beyond that, you have three Grace Days this semester.  Grace Days are different from extensions in that you don't need to ask permission.  That is, you have three total days (including weekend days) to push back a deadline 24 hours at any time during the term, without asking my permission.  These will operate on an honor system: I will trust you to notify me when you are taking a grace day, and to keep track yourself of how many you have used.  Note that seniors can't take grace days for Paper 3, because I have to turn in grades so they can, you know, like, graduate and whatnot.

Academic collaboration and academic honesty: I hope you study with other people in the class, and discuss the substance of the course with them.  As you do that, I encourage you to read each other's paper drafts and to give advice to each other.  When you do that, acknowledge in a footnote those who have helped you.  If you draw on a specific idea from someone else, cite them specifically in a footnote, just as you would cite any source you find helpful.

I also encourage you to read Pomona College's Academic Honesty Policy, which you learned about in your ID1 class and which you can find online in the college catalog. We actually do have an honor code, and it's important.

Resources

1. Sunday Afternoon Study Space: I will set up a "Zoom room" from 3:00 to 5:00 on Sunday afternoons for the whole semester.  Partly, it's a help session for one-on-one conversations with students about their papers, research, thesis projects, and internship issues. Partly, it's just a supportive study space: students are welcome to stay any or all of that time to work on their projects and classes with other PPA and Politics students.

2. The Library: Though most students do most of their research alone and unassisted, the Claremont Colleges actually has a library with amazing resources and a staff of trained research librarians who can be of tremendous assistance to you in your work. One of these librarians, Mary Martin, has kindly created entire resource pages for students in the Politics and Public Policy Analysis courses that I link to in my resource page. I urge you to start with those links, and to make an individual appointment with Ms. Martin or one of her colleagues. They can help you find things you would never otherwise find, and they can save you countless hours of unnecessary wandering on the Internet. Librarians can also help you with Zotero and with citation challenges.

3. Zotero: Zotero is free, open-source, public domain bibliographic and citation software that works in most browsers and word processing programs. You download it from https://zotero.org, where you can also find links to instructional videos, faqs, problem-solving threads, and access to free cloud storage for your own bibliographic archive. If you haven't already installed Zotero on your own computer and started using it for research projects and papers, I'd strongly urge you to do it immediately. It will help you immensely with writing papers for this and every other class you take.

4. The Writing Center: All writers need support and feedback on their work in progress. I strongly recommend that each of you, whether you consider yourself a struggling writer or an expert, seek that support and feedback as you complete writing assignments for this course. Each of the colleges has a Writing Center which provides students a community of experienced readers and writers, offering free, one-on-one consultations at any stage of the writing process - from brainstorming ideas to fine-tuning a draft. They also help with oral presentations. Pomona's Writing Center will open at full capacity after the second week of the semester, but will be holding limited hours as soon as classes begin. Additionally, Jenny Thomas, Assistant Director of College Writing and Language Diversity, offers specialized writing and speaking support for multilingual students navigating English as an additional language. To make an appointment with a Writing or Speaking Partner, please log on to the Portal and go to Academics > Writing Center, or contact them at writing.center@pomona.edu. All appointments will be made through the Portal as usual, will be online, and Writing and Speaking Partners will be flexible both about the mode of consultation (phone, Zoom, email, Google docs, etc.) and about their hours in order to accommodate time zone differences.

5. The Quantitative Skills Center: Like the Writing Center, the QSC can be very helpful to PPA students. QSC peer tutors can help students across projects that involve data gathering and statistical analysis. They can help with many aspects of your project: research design, methodological issues, data sets, data analysis, and presentations of data through visuals, in writing, and in presentations.

6. Accommodations: I welcome every student into my classes, and am committed to the full inclusion of anyone who may need an accommodation based on the impact of disability including mental health, chronic or temporary medical conditions. Given our current online learning environment, I recognize that the challenges facing students are different and student accommodation needs may change. I encourage Pomona students who may need some accommodation in order to fully participate in this class to contact Pomona College's Accesibility Resources and Services office, or call the Dean of Students office at (909) 621-8017. (Students from the other Claremont Colleges should contact their home college's disability resources officer.) The Dean will review your concerns and determine, with you, what accommodations are necessary and appropriate. All discussions, information, and documentation of disability are confidential.

Back to Table of Contents

Politics 147: Education Politics and Policy
Pomona College, Spring 2021
Prof. David Menefee-Libey

Class Schedule and Assignments

Notes:
-- Readings for a day are listed below that day's date
-- I will change some details of this as the semester progresses.
-- An asterisk (*) means the a copy of the reading is posted on Sakai. Let me know if you do not have access to Sakai.

Week 1: Jan 25 & 27
Monday: Overview of the course and requirements, initial introductions, syllabus exercise
» Readings: this syllabus and "Big Ideas" handout
Wednesday: More introductions and norms for the class
» *Bartholomae & Petrosky, "Reading With and Against the Grain" Adapted from David Bartholomae and Anthony Petrosky, eds., Ways of Reading, 8th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2008, pp. 10-12.
» *DML, Class discussion norm sheet

Week 2: Feb 1 & 3
Monday: Covid-19 and K-12 education.
» Gross, Betheny, Alice Opalka, and Padma Gundapaneni. “U-Turn: Surge of COVID Cases Reverses Reopening Progress in America’s School Districts | Center on Reinventing Public Education.” Bothell, WA: Center for Reinventing Public Education, January 2021. https://www.crpe.org/publications/u-turn-surge-covid-cases-reverses-reopening-progress-americas-school-districts.
» Henderson, Michael B., Paul E. Peterson, and Martin R. West. “Pandemic Parent Survey Finds Perverse Pattern: Students Are More Likely to Be Attending School in Person Where Covid Is Spreading More Rapidly.” Education Next, January 19, 2021. https://www.educationnext.org/pandemic-parent-survey-finds-perverse-pattern-students-more-likely-to-be-attending-school-in-person-where-covid-is-spreading-more-rapidly/.
» Taylor, Kate. “13,000 School Districts, 13,000 Approaches to Teaching During Covid.” The New York Times, January 21, 2021, sec. U.S. https://www.nytimes.com/2021/01/21/us/schools-coronavirus.html.
Wednesday: What is education politics about? Competing educational goals? Competing political coalitions? Both?
» *David Labaree, "Public Goods, Private Goods: The American Struggle Over Educational Goals," American Educational Research Journal 34:1 (1997), (Note that the article is really two articles: pp. 39-59 on educational goals, and pp. 59-end on competing political coalitions.)
» (More from Labaree, if you're interested, on why so many missions for schools:) *David F. Labaree, "The Winning Ways of a Losing Strategy: Educationalizing Social Problems in the United States," Educational Theory, Vol. 58, no. 4 (2008), pp. 447-460.

Week 3: Feb 8 & 10
Monday: White supremacy and anti-blackness as an often unacknowledged goal of education policy in the United States.
» *Sojoyner, Damien M. "By All Means Possible: The Historical Struggle over Black Education," chapter 5 of First Strike: Educational Enclosures in Black Los Angeles. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2016, pp. 147-188.
» *Dumas, Michael J. “Against the Dark: Antiblackness in Education Policy and Discourse.” Theory Into Practice 55, no. 1 (January 2, 2016): 11–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405841.2016.1116852.
Wednesday: An overview of the policy system, and your first paper assignment: case study and essay
» *Peters, B. Guy. "The Structure of Policy Making in American Government." Chapter 2 of American Public Policy: Promise and Performance. 11th ed. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE/CQ Press, 2018.
» I'll post an updated version of this link by today: https://pages.pomona.edu/~djml4747/EducationCase.html. The paper will be due Friday, Feb. 26 by 5:00 pm.

Week 4: Feb 15 & 17
Monday: Political power: three dimensions
» *Fowler, Frances C. "Power and Education Policy." Chapter 2 of Policy Studies for Educational Leaders: An Introduction. 4th ed. Pearson, 2013.
» [optional, because it's five 45-minute episodes] Joffe-Walt, Chana. “Nice White Parents.” Podcast first posted July 20, 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/30/podcasts/nice-white-parents-serial.html.
Wednesday: How are the case studies going?
» (Wednesday group post on Sakai Forum reflections about Monday power readings and discussion

Week 5: Feb 22 & 24
Monday: What is a "good" school? An organizational view
» *Penny Bender Sebring, et al, The Essential Supports for School Improvement (Chicago, IL: Consortium on Chicago School Research, 2006), available online at https://consortium.uchicago.edu/publications/essential-supports-school-improvement.
Wednesday: Where are we now? History and path dependence
» Black, Prologue; Introduction; and chapter 1, "The Current Crisis"
» Paper 1 due Friday, February 26 at 5:00 pm

Week 6: Mar 1 & 3
Monday: The origins of public education in the United States
» Black, chapter 2, "A Nation Founded on Education"
» Black, chapter 3, "Education as Freedom"
Wednesday: Education in the failed first attempt to build a multi-racial democracy in the US
» Black, chapter 4, "Reconstruction: A National Recommitment to Education and Democracy"
» Black, chapter 5, "A Constitutional Chorus for the Right to Education"
» Black, chapter 6, "The Fall"

March 6 - 14: Spring Break

Week 7: Mar 15 & 17
Monday: The emergence of our contemporary politics
» Black, chapter 7, "The Second Reconstruction"
» Black, chapter 8, "The Civil Rights Backlash"
» Black, chapter 9, "Rediscovering the Constutional Right to Education"
Wednesday: The "education crisis" that began in the 1980s and never ended
» *National Commission on Excellence in Education [NCEE], "A Nation at Risk" (April 1983). (Available online at http://www.ed.gov/pubs/NatAtRisk.)
» *Gene Glass, "Transforming Education: Ordo Ab Chao [Order Out of Chaos]", ch. 2 of Fertilizers, Pills, and Magnetic Strips: The Fate of Public Education in America (Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, 2008), pp. 19-55.

Week 8: Mar 22 - 24
Monday: Back to the present: Where do things stand with Covid?
» Also, I'll hand out Paper 2 assignment today.
» Note: The paper will be due Friday, April 2 by 5:00 pm
Wednesday: Systemic reform, standards-based education and the "chain of ideas"
» *Mehta, Jal. "The Transformation of Federal Policy: Ideas and the Triumph of Accountability Politics." ch. 8 of The Allure of Order: High Hopes, Dashed Expectations, and the Troubled Quest to Remake American Schooling (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2013).

Week 9: Mar 29 & 31
Monday: Charter Schools
» *Henig, Jeffrey R. "Charter Schools in a Changing Political Landscape," from Iris C. Rotberg & Joshua L. Glazer, eds., Choosing Charters: Better Schools or More Segregation? (Teachers College Press, 2018).
» [Optional, for some partisan history] Rachel Cohen, "The Untold History of Charter Schools," The Journal of Democracy, April 27, 2017. Available online at http://democracyjournal.org/arguments/the-untold-history-of-charter-schools.
Wednesday: Where things stand with Covid and school reopening
» Gross, Betheny, Alice Opalka, and Padma Gundapeneni, “School Reopening Trends Offer Districts the Opportunity to Start Planning Beyond the Pandemic,” Center for Reinventing Public Education, March 15, 2021. Online at: https://www.crpe.org/publications/school-reopening-trends-offer-districts-opportunity-start-planning-beyond-pandemic.
» *Sparks, Sara D. “Will 3-Foot Spacing Still Make Sense With New COVID Variants in the Community?” Education Week, March 25, 2021. Online at: https://www.edweek.org/leadership/will-3-foot-spacing-still-make-sense-with-new-covid-variants-in-the-community/2021/03
[Optional] John P. Bailey, “Is it safe to reopen schools? An extensive review of the research,” American Enterprise Institute, March 11, 2021. Online at: https://www.aei.org/research-products/report/is-it-safe-to-reopen-schools-an-extensive-review-of-the-research/
» Paper 2 due Friday, April 2 at 5:00 pm

Week 10: Apr 5 & 7
Monday: Standards-based education: How did we get Common Core, and how is it supposed to work?
» Benson, David J. “The Standards-Based Education Teaching/Learning Cycle.” Denver, CO: Colorado Coalition for Standards-Based Education, May 2012. Available online at: http://staffweb.psdschools.org/RTI_Website/Resources/StandardsBasedTeachingLearningCyclepdf.pdf
» Whitman, David. “The Surprising Roots of the Common Core: How Conservatives Gave Rise to ‘Obamacore’” Brown Center on Education Policy, September 2015. Online at: https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Surprising-Conservative-Roots-of-the-Common-Core_FINAL.pdf
» *Layton, Lyndsey. “How Bill Gates Pulled Off the Swift Common Core Revolution.” The Washington Post, June 7, 2014. Online at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/how-bill-gates-pulled-off-the-swift-common-core-revolution/2014/06/07/a830e32e-ec34-11e3-9f5c-9075d5508f0a_story.html.
Wednesday: *What* should be taught? A curriculum standards exemplar
» California's required state K-12 curriculum for every subject is posted online at https://www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/. In class, we'll discuss the state's high school civics standards, "History–Social Science Content Standards for California Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve," adopted in 1998 and posted here: https://www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/documents/histsocscistnd.pdf

Week 11: Apr 12 & 14
Monday: Teaching and teachers in the world of standards-based education
» *Pak, Katie, Morgan S. Polikoff, Laura M. Desimone, and Erica Saldívar García. “The Adaptive Challenges of Curriculum Implementation: Insights for Educational Leaders Driving Standards-Based Reform.” AERA Open 6, no. 2 (April 2020): 233285842093282. https://doi.org/10.1177/2332858420932828
» [optional] *Torres, A. Chris. “‘Are We Architects or Construction Workers?’ Re-Examining Teacher Autonomy and Turnover in Charter Schools.” Education Policy Analysis Archives, December 22, 2014. Online at: https://doi.org/10.14507/epaa.v22.1614.
Wednesday: Teacher unions: what do they do?
» *Strunk, Katharine O., Joshua M. Cowen, Dan Goldhaber, Bradley D. Marianno, Tara Kilbride, and Roddy Theobald. “It Is in the Contract: How the Policies Set in Teachers’ Unions’ Collective Bargaining Agreements Vary Across States and Districts.” Educational Policy 32, no. 2 (March 2018): 280–312. Online at: https://doi.org/10.1177/0895904817741546.
» Bradford, Derrell, "A Rolling National Teacher Strike Is Why Schools Are Closed," Education Next, February 2021. Online at: https://www.educationnext.org/rolling-national-teacher-strike-is-why-schools-are-closed/

Week 12: Apr 19 & 21
Monday: *How do we know* what students have learned? Testing and assessment
» *Koretz, Daniel M. Chapter 1, "What is a Test?" and chapter 2, "The Evolution of Test-Based 'Reform'" from The Testing Charade: Pretending to Make Schools Better. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2017.
» Paper 3 assignment discussion. Papers will be due Monday, May 10 by 5:00 pm.
Wednesday: Fixing education by fixing how schools are governed
» *Marsh, Julie A., Taylor N. Allbright, Danica R. Brown, Katrina E. Bulkley, Katharine O. Strunk, and Douglas N. Harris. “The Process and Politics of Educational Governance Change in New Orleans, Los Angeles, and Denver.” American Educational Research Journal 58, no. 1 (February 2021): 107–59. Online at: https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831220921475.

Week 13: Apr 26 & 28
Monday: School segregation
» Erica Frankenberg, Gary Orfield, Jongyeon Ee, and Jennifer B. Ayscue, "Harming Our Common Future: America's Segregated Schools 65 Years after Brown" (Civil Rights Project / Proyecto Derechos Civiles, UCLA, May 2019). Available online at https://civilrightsproject.ucla.edu/research/k-12-education/integration-and-diversity/harming-our-common-future-americas-segregated-schools-65-years-after-brown/Brown-65-050919v4-final.pdf
» [Optional, with much more detail and explanation. The Executive Summary will give you the core.] Gary Orfield, John Kuecsera, and Genevieve Siegel-Hawley, "E Pluribus... Separation: Deepening Double Segregation for More Students," (Civil Rights Project / Proyecto Derechos Civiles, UCLA, September 2012). Available online at https://civilrightsproject.ucla.edu/research/k-12-education/integration-and-diversity/mlk-national/e-pluribus...separation-deepening-double-segregation-for-more-students.
Wednesday: Pushing back against conventional thinking about school integration
» *Horsford, Sonya Douglass. “School Integration in the New Jim Crow: Opportunity or Oxymoron?” Educational Policy 33, no. 1 (January 2019): 257–75. Online at: https://doi.org/10.1177/0895904818810526.

Week 14: May 3 & 5
Monday: Covid and race: parents choosing whether to send their kids back into schools
» Kogan, Vladimir, and Nat Malkus. “Convince Black and Latino Parents That In-Person School Is Safe.” Accessed April 30, 2021. https://www.usatoday.com/story/opinion/2021/04/19/convince-black-latino-parents-in-person-school-safe-column/7242262002/.
» *Posey-Maddux, Linn, Maxine McKinney de Royston, Alea R. Holman, Raquel M. Rall, and Rachel A. Johnson. “No Choice Is the ‘Right’ Choice: Black Parents’ Educational Decision-Making in Their Search for a ‘Good’ School. Harvard Educational Review 91, no. 1 (April 2021).
Wednesday: Reflecting on the course, lessons for next time
» Readings: this syllabus

Paper 3 due by 5:00 pm next Monday, May 10.

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Last modified: May 3, 2021