1. Otto Wurster, Heimat-Geschichte:
Plochingen (Plochingen, 1949), p. 412. Manfred
Reiner, a local Plochingen historian, shared with
me the history of the ownership of the Plochingen
mill in this period. The other half of the mill
had been controlled by Georg Friedrich Knoll since
1754. Prior to that it had been owned by the
Witzig family (1750-54) and before that, the
Betschelen family. Manfred Reiner, Letter to Ken
Wolf (11/25/98) .
2. The records in Jesingen are in poor condition
and in some cases impossible to read. Helmut Conz,
the current pastor of Jesingen, told me (in a
letter dated 12/16/98) that there are still Wolfs
living in his community and that an unwritten
tradition has it that their ancestors came to
Jesingen about the year 1700 from Heiningen near
Göppingen. The Heiningen records also contain
references to a Wolf family, but we have so far
been unable to find the "missing link."
3. The Plochingen Familienregister
indicates that "Jakob Wolf" married "before
4. The Plochingen
Familienregister specifically states that
Elias was born "nicht in Plochingen" but
does not say where he was born.
5. Plochingen Familienregister.
6. The duke at the time was Carl Eugen.
7. Schrieben des Herzoglichen Regierungsrats an
das Herzogliche Amtsoberant Stuttgart vom 25.
8. Stadtarchiv Plochingen, Band B 300.
9. Manfred Reiner, Letter (11/25/98) to Ken Wolf.
On February 11, 1778, Knoll sold the entire mill
to Nicolaus Bauer from Denkendorf. Reiner
identified Hofman as Johann Jakob Wolf's
son-in-law, based on the use of the word
Tochtermann in the contract. But church
records make it clear that the only daughter of
Johann Jakob Wolf who lived long enough to marry
(i.e., Anna Maria; see text) married another
miller named Konrad Weinhard in 1758. Moreover, it
would be odd for Wolf's son-in-law to sell his
share of the mill to Wolf's estranged
10. Anonymous girl (10/30/1741--11/1/1741),
Anonymous boy (7/6/1743), filius--Latin for
"son"--(1745-2/18/1746), Johann Friedrich
(1/19/1745-7/14/1748), Anonymous girl
(10/31/1746--11/1/1746), Hans Michael
(1747-5/9/1751), Elizabeth Magdalena
(1/9/1751-2/11/1751), and Johann Wilhelm
11. Christina Barbara (6/8/1761--8/8/1764), Elias
Ferdinand (10/18/1762), Christina Barbara
(7/18/1764--7/22/1770), Johann Jakob
12. Elias's sixth and eighth children were
stillborn: Eva Rosine (5/1/1772) and Christian
13. He is listed as "Bürger und Beck"
in the Plochingen records and
"Bäckermeister" in the entry for his
son in the Tailfingen
14. Otto Wurster, Heimat-Geschichte:
Plochingen (Plochingen, 1949), p. 352.
webpage, click on: Aus der
16. Familienregister, Aichschieß, fol
248. Born in Plochingen (2/13/1802), Christian's
wife Regina was the daughter of Christian Gottlob
Maier, "Bürger und Weingartner" and
Regina Katharina Geibel. The name "Gottlob"
suggests a family tie between Regina and her
sister-in-law's (Kunigunde's) husband Ludwig
Gottlob. Christian and Regina had seven children:
Heinrike Eberhardine Wolf (b. 11/12/1827; married
August Heinrich Haas, a master woodworker in
Eßlingen, on 8/14/1856), Regina Katharina
Wolf (11/13/1828; married in 1855), Johanna
Christiane Wolf (6/2/1830-6/16/1830), Christiane
Rosine Wolf (9/25/1831-10/13/1831), Christian
Friedrich Wolf (10/21/1832-9/2/1878; moved to
Stuttgart from Plochingen in 1860) married Pauline
Sofie Hertner (12/15/1833-2/18/1897; born in
Stuttgart; died in Schwäbisch Gmund) on
8/9/1860 and moved to Stuttgart the same year,
where he became a master bookbinder), Wilhelm
Friedrich Wolf (10/15/1834-10/29/1834), and Rosine
Barbara Wolf (2/4/1836-7/9/1836). The
Familienregister in Stuttgart (KB 2023)
reveals that Christian Friedrich Wolf and his wife
Pauline (the only couple that would have produced
children with the last name "Wolf") had four
children: 1) a stillborn boy (2/16/1861; conceived
some months before they married); 2) Marie
Wilhelmine Wolf (1/6/1868-5/30/1868), who died at
four month old; 3) Carl August Wolf
(3/20/1869-6/4/1869), who died at two and a half
months; and 4) Pauline Wilhelmine Sofie
(5/29/1870-3/27/1956 in Schwäbisch Gmund),
who lived to be 86, but never married. Wilhelm
Friedrich's family, in other words, proved to be a
genealogical dead end.
17. But not before she had the chance to attend
her nephew Wilhelm's baptism June 7, 1831 (see
18. International Genealogical Index, Batch
M932272 (1808-1885), source call number: 1055996.
Heinrike's christening (Lutheran) took place on
June 23, 1796, in Mühlhausen-Cannstatt. See:
19. In the Nagold register, the pertinent entry
reads: "Johannes Baumgarth, herrschaftlicher
Hausvogt und Schloßgärtner in
Mhlhausen..." The name "Palm" appears in the
Tailfingen and the Aichschieß
Familiensregister. The von Palm family left
a bigger mark on nearby Eßlingen than on
Mühlhausen. The fourteenth-century
Stammhaus ("family house") of the von
Palms--with sixteenth-century modifications--is
located at Hafenmarkt 1 and is currently the
Ratskellar. The so-called "Palm'scher Bau"
(currently a restaurant in Eßlingen) was at
one time the Stadt-Palazzo of the von Palm
family. It was built between 1708 and 1710 by
Baron Jonathan von Palm after a fire in 1701
destroyed the previous palace. The baron's affairs
in Vienna meant that he rarely occupied his
Eßlingen residence. One of his successors,
Baron Franz Gottlieb von Palm, had a new palace
built between the years 1748 and 1751. Since 1841,
the building now serves as the "new"
Rathaus (City hall). It would appear that
Johann Gottlieb Baumgarth served as butler and
gardener for the family schloß in
Mühlhausen. Eßlingen webpage
1 and Eßlingen webpage
2. It would appear that Johannes Gottlieb
Baumgarth's middle name was a product of his
father's ties to the baron of the same name. The
fact that many of the Baumgarth's who wished
Heinrike's children well in America (see below)
wrote from Vienna suggests that the extended
Baumgarth family served the barons in each of
20. According to records in Emmingen, the couple
married in 1790. Their five children: Luise
Friederike (5/30/1792-6/5/1863), single, died of
heart problems in Emmingen); Friederike Philippine
(9/28/1793-7/3/1867), single, died in Emmingen;
Heinrike Eberhardine (see text), Auguste Caroline
(5/7/1801-3/25/1870), died in Emmingen; and
Christian Heinrich (9/29/1805-8/22/1864, died in
Emmingen). Burkhart Oertel, ed., Ortssippenbuch
Nagold, v. 2 (Neubiberg, 1994), #32. See also:
Familienregister, Aichschieß, f. 248
webpage, click on:Aus der
22. The first-born child of Johann Jakob and
Heinrike was actually Heinrike Wolf
(8/11/1828-9/9/28) but she died before she was a
month old. An unnamed stillborn son
(Anonymus, 2/16/1838) was born between the
births of Eberhard Ludwig and Amalia
23. According to the Tailfingen
Familienregister, which brackets the first
four births (including Heinrike) in the family as
24. The Aichschieß Familienregister
gives the dates and names of the people who
witnessed the baptism of each of the three
children. Present at Gustav's baptism
("Aichschieß, 13 January, 2:00 p.m.") were
his uncle, Christian Friedrich Wolf
("Beckermeister in Plochingen"), his
maternal grandparents Barbara and Johann Gottlieb
Baumgarth, and two other members of the Baumgarth
family: Friedrich Baumgarth, who is identified as
a Schultheiß und Verwaltungsaktuar
(village mayor and administrative clerk) of the
village of Kirchhausen am Neckar, attended the
ceremony with his wife, Regina Barbara; and Gustav
Victor Albert Baumgarth, "soldier of the Second
Royal-Imperial Infantry Regiment." Present at
Wilhelm's baptism (6/7/31, 11:00 a.m.) were his
aunt Christiana (a.k.a. Anna Christina Wolf,
listed as "unmarried daughter of Johann Jakob
Wolf, Bürger und Beckermeister in
Plochingen") and his uncle Christian Friedrich
Wolf (Beckermeister in Plochingen).
Wilhelmine's baptism (7/31/32; 11:00 a.m.) was
witnessed by her uncle Christian Friedrich Wolf,
her aunt Kunigunde (along with her husband Ludwig
Gemsenjäger), and Friedrich Baumgarth, with
his wife, Regina Barbara. The Tailfingen
Familienregister indicates that Eberhard
was baptised there on December 11, 1835 and
Amalie, on June 17, 1840. As one might expect,
given the distance between Plochingen and
Tailfingen, there were no family members among the
witnesses. Both baptisms were witnessed by Johann
Blickler, Schultheiß; Amalie Breyer,
the pastor's wife; and Johann Belthes Bizer, who
is identified as a Heiligensleger. Amalie
Wolf would seem, therefore, to have been named
after Amalie Breyer.
26. It should be noted that the
Württemberg Immigration Index, vol. 6,
p. 480, contains references to Eberhard Ludwig
(#577764.00), Wilhelmine (#577770.00), and Amalie
Louise Wolf (#577770.00). Wilhelmine's birthplace
is given as "Aichschieß, dist.
Eßlingen", but Eberhard's and Amalie's are
given as "Plochingen, dist. Eßlingen", which
contradicts the information in the Tailfingen
baptismal records. Moreover census records from
St. Louis indicate that Eberhard Wolf, cabinet
maker, was born in Metzingen. Given that the
actual baptismal records are to be found in
Tailfingen, we can be confident in identifying
that town as Eberhard's birthplace. That he, after
his arrival in St. Louis, should remember his
hometown as Metzingen is logical enough given the
fact that his family moved there when he was a boy
of six and lived there at least five
27. Ältfamilienregister, Metzingen, Band 5,
29. Interestingly enough, it is the entry in the
Metzingen Familienregister that explains
that Heinrike left "with her children for Emmingen
am Nagold in 1848" and died in 1852. Normally such
records only look backward in time.
30. According to the Nagold civil family register
(59), Christian Heinrich Baumgarth was born in
Muhlhausen am Neckar on 9/20/1805 and died in
Emmingen am Nagold on 8/22/1864. In the same year
that he assumed his position as schoolteacher, he
married (11/5/1839 in Emmingen am Nagold) Eva
Dorothea Geisig (4/5/1818-5/7/1884; daughter of
Johann Adam Geisig, "Bürger und
Bauer," and Sabine Sinn; died in Wildberg), a
native of Biberach (near Heilbronn, 40 km north of
Stuttgart). The couple had seven children, all
born in Emmingen-Nagold: Franz Carl Friedrich
Ferdinand Baumgarth (b. 2/1/1841); anonymous
(stillborn: 5/5/1845); Eberhard Gustav Ludwig
Baumgarth (5/19/1848-9/9/1848); Anna Louise
Baumgarth (b. 5/18/ 1850); Friedrich Gottlieb Adam
Baumgarth (5/26/1852); Friederike Heinrike Auguste
Baumgarth (3/1/1856); and Wilhelmine Pauline
Baumgarth (1/28/1860). The register entry
indicates that Anna married (11/26/1874) Gottlob
Ludwig Gluser in Wildberg (just north of
Emmingen), and Friedrich left for America in 1879.
This is confirmed by the Württemberg
Emigration Index, v. 2. His application date
was February 1879 and his destination, North
31. Burkhart Oertel, ed., Ortssippenbuch
Nagold, v. 2 (Neubiberg, 1994), #1534.
32. According to the local archivist--Helmut
Conz--in Jesingen, there are Wolfs living in that
village who look to Heiningen as their ancestral
home. But so far no link has been found.
33. The reference in Amalie's note to Tailfingen
as her place of birth was, by the way, the key to
picking up the trail of the Wolf line in Germany.
A letter to the Tailfingen Lutheran church yielded
a copy of the Wolf page in the
Familienregister that listed Amalie and all
of her siblings. The original note is in the
possession of W. John Wolf's mother.
34. Württemberg Emigration Index, ed.
Trudy Schenk and Ruth Froelke, v. 7 (Ancestry,
1998), p. 464, 465.
35. Ibid., p. 464.
36. Germans to America: Lists of Passengers
Arriving at U.S. Ports, 1850-55, ed. Ira
Glazier and P. William Filby, v. 5 (Wilmington,
DE, 1984), p. 363-65. The Trumbell is listed as a
brigantine (a type of two-masted sailing ship) in
Passenger Ships Arriving in New York
Harbor, ed. Bradley W. Steuart, v. 1
(Bountiful, Utah, 1991), p. 340. It had sailed to
New York at least once before in 1829.
37. Germans to America, v. 7, pp. 318-19.
There are three ships with the name Antelope
listed in Passenger Ships, v. 1, p. 191, the most
likely candidate being the brigantine that had
sailed the New York at least three times before,
in 1830, 1834, and 1844.
38. The originals are in the hands of W. John
39. R. Burnett and K. Luebbering, German
Settlement in Missouri: New Land, Old Ways,
University of Missouri Press, 1996, pp. 13, 18,
40. Germans to America, pp. x-xii.
41. William Bromwell, ed., History of
Immigration to the United States, Exhibiting the
Number, Sex, Age, Occupation, and Country of Birth
of Passengers Arriving from Foreign Countries by
Sea from 1819 to 1855 (1855; repr.: New York,
1969), pp. 160-69.
42. Ever since 1819, ship masters were required
(by an act of Congress: 3 Stat. 489) to submit
passenger lists to the customs collector in the
ports where they arrived.
42a. Similarly, given that Bremerhaven was such an important link in the American
tabacco trade, northern Germans could expect to make landfall in the
tabacco-producing states of Virginia and Maryland. Audrey L. Olson,
St. Louis Germans, 1850-1920: The Nature of an Immigrant Community
and Its Relation to the Assimilation Process (New York, Arno Press: 1980), pp. 2-3.
43. St. Louis Citizenship Records, Vol J p 430.
Eberhard's brothers Gustav and William, "citizens
of the United States," served as witnesses. The
document indicates that to qualify for American
citizenship in Missouri, one had to have been a
resident of the U.S. for at least five years and a
resident of Missouri for at least one year.
Therefore Eberhard must have moved from
Philadelphia to St. Louis sometime before August,
1858. Given the date of his oath, Eberhard was
renouncing his allegiance to King Wilhelm I, who
ruled the newly-formed kingdom of Wrttemberg from
1816 to 1864.
44. Luisa is listed as a native of "Fellbach,
Baden." Fellbach is, like so many of the towns
that pertain to the family's history, near
Eßlingen and Stuttgart. In order for Louisa
to have been 25 (as indicated in the 1860 census),
she must have been born c. 1835. Shedule 1, p, 57,
Free Inhabitants in 2nd Ward, City of St. Louis,
45. Charles would become a carpenter and marry
Bertha Will in St. Louis on 8/23/1873. The St.
Louis Marriage Register (vol. 16, p. 162)
indicates that she was from Cincinnati, Ohio. The
couple divorced on June 30, 1905, and Charles
married Katie Boss. Charles lived until 12/6/1931
(death certificate; lists place of birth as
"Pennsylvania" and parents "unknown."). See also
census records from 1880, 1910, and 1920. The
December 7, 1931 issue of the St. Louis Post
Dispatch carried the following obituary:
"Wolf, Charles G., on Sunday, December 6, 1931.
Beloved husband of Katherine Wolf (nee Boss),
father of Micheal, William, Ollie Wolf; Mrs.
Joseph King and Sarah Herman...."
46. There were two women by the name of Louise (=
Louisa) on board: Louise Klein (Prussia) and
Louise Obert (Baden), both 20 years old. It is
possible that Louise Obert is the future Louisa
Wolf, given her ties to Baden. Louisa Wolf is
listed as being 25 years old in 1860, making her
approximately 18 when the Trumbell sailed to New
47. St. Louis
48. Carolyn Cook, "St. Louis--Gateway to the
West," German Life (June/July 2001), p.
49. St. Louis
51. There is a "Maria Kubler" in Germans to
America (7:267) who is listed as "Dutch" with
an arrival date of 8/8/57.
52. We have note that she wrote in German on February 19, 1861, from St. Louis to her "loving sister-in-law"
and signed "Marie Wolf, born Kuebler." If this note was, as one would suspect,
intended for someone in Germany, then the
brother-in-law or sister-in-law in question would
have had to be someone married to one of her
siblings, not someone married to a member of the
Wolf family (all of whom married after they
52a. A minor complication with regard to Gustav's
date of death has to do with the two doctor
bills (see below) that survive as part of Gustav's
probate records. One of them bills the estate for
a "visit at night" on August 23, while the other
lists two prescriptions written on August 23 and
26 respectively. Either August 26 was recorded in
error or the prescription (of "juniper berries"
and "smelling salts") was directed at the newly
53. All of the probate records on Gustav Wolf are
available on line thanks to the St. Louis Probate
Court Digitization Project: 1802 - 1900. My
thanks to cousin Greg Myers for uncovering this
goldmine of information.
53a. The word in the on-line, scanned version of
this source is not legible.
54. The following information about Tuberculosis
in nineteenth-century American history, comes from
Sheila M. Rothman, Living in the Shadow of
Death: Tuberculosis and the Social Experience of
Illness in American History (Johns Hopkins,
55. St. Louis Marriage Index, 1804-76 , St.
Louis, MO: St. Louis Genealogical Society, 1999,
v. 11, p. 319.
56. Civil War Pension Index...
56a. The Index to Death Records in the City of
St. Louis, 1850-1908, St. Louis, MO: St. Louis
Genealogical Society, 1999, v. 25, p. 164 actually
lists her as Louise Hanser, but the fact
that Louisa Hauser's probate case began in 1891
stongly suggests that we are dealing with the same
person in both cases.
56b. According to St. Louis City Death Records,
56c. It may not be coincidental that--according to
census--Gustav Wolf's household included a
fourteen-year-old servant named Clara Kuhn
from Bavaria. She may well have been related to
57. He is listed as a seven-year-old in the 1870
58. St. Louis County Observer v. 12, no.
59. Bertha Wolf married Charles Vogt and had three
children: Everette C. Vogt, Percy Vogt, and
Mildred Marie Vogt. William Wolf married Betty and
had two children: Elsie Louise Wolf (1/21/1900)
and William John Wolf (6/27/1906).
59a. It is not clear where Mary's children from
her pervious marriage went to live after the
deaths of their mother and step-father.
60. Helen learned of the anniversary when she saw
an announcement for it in the Pacific Missouri
newspaper that Will and Betty had sent to her in
Denver. Clearly the two families had been out of
touch for some time, since Helen took the occasion
to report on the ages of her grandchildren:
Gretchen (11) and Barbara (3), the children of
Helen's son Louis Euegene ("Gene") Ernst; and Carl
(7) and Christie (4), the children of her son
61. According to Record of marriages, St.
61a. Johanna Clara "Bruglet's" last name is not
easy to decipher. It has been rendered "Bright" in
the Ancestry.com records, but that would not be a
logical last name for a German immigrant. On the
other hand, "Bruglet" is no more typical. Until
some other document referring to her turns up, it
will be hard to come up with a definitive version
of the name.
62. The letter is addressed to "Mr. William Wolf,
Pacific, Mo., care of "Mrs. Louise
63. The letter refers to Clara's upcoming
64. Her death certificate indicates that Marie's
body was cremated. But that would not have
precluded having a grave stone in the cemetary.
65. The St. Louis Marriage Register, v. 16,
66. Marie's death certificate indicates that she
had resided in Colorado for eight and a half years
before she died. There is no indication that any
Mr. Fehlman came with her leading me to the
conclsion that he had already passed away. His
death and her age may have combined to encourage
her to relocate to Denver, where her
daughter-in-law and three grandchildren were still
67. According to Helen, Walter's wife (see
68. Letter from Gene Ernst to Carol Marshall,
69. 4121 Eagle Rock Blvd, according to a return
70. Like her sister Helen, Marie kept in close
touch with "cousin Minnie" Geister (Eugene's first
cousin, the daughter of Amalie Louise Wolf
Geister). We have an envelope that originally
contained a sewing booklet that Marie sent to
Minnie--who was at the time a patient in Jewish
Hospital, St. Louis--on August 20, 1941. The
return address on the envelope indicates that
Marie lived at 2639 Medlow Ave., Los Angeles.
Minnie Geister of Pacific Missouri also appears as
a witness on Walter Wolf's "Delayed Birth
Certificate," which he secured from the Missouri
State Board of Health on April 15, 1942. At the
time, Walter was living at 14367 Sherman Way,Van
71. Letter from Gene Ernst to Carol Marchall,
72. Thomas Grubbs Keyt married Hazel May Freeman
(8/9/1904--10/6/1990, d. Ventura) and had two
children: Gardner Morton Keyt (b. 10/28/1923,
Pasadena) and Barbara Arlean Keyt (b. 10/8/1931,
Santa Barbara). Tom worked for National Cash
Register, running the office in Glendale. Tom
helped his niece Carol by advising her to learn
bookkeeping at the Los Angeles office, a skill
that served her well throughout her working life.
Tom's nephew Bob worked with him at NCR in
Glendale and when Tom transferred to Santa
Barbara, he convinced Bob (and his wife, Jo) to
move closer so they could continue to work
together. That is how Bob and Jo ended up in
Ventura. Tom's move to Santa Barbara was
complicated by the fact that his last name
contained the same letters as the local TV station
(KEYT) leading to him having to field regular
phone calls by disgruntled viewers. Tom died at
age 56 of lung cancer.
73. Alexander Fred Ernst (b. 2/7/1883) was the
younger brother of Louis Willian Ernst. His wife Elizabeth (Betty)
Jackson Ernst, whom he married on June 14, 1911,
was a close friend of Helen Keyt Wolf. Like
Helen's father, William Baxter Keyt, Alex Ernst
was a dentist. Alex and Helen's daughter, Helen
Shanteau, and Betty's daughter, Ruth Kendrick,
kept the connection going in the next generation.
74. In a letter to his cousin Carol:
74a. Walter built the house of Fourth Avenue himself. Walter Wolf, Jr., "A Lifetime Love Affair
with Aviation." In due course his boys would follow suit,
building homes for their families.
Baxter built a home for his young family at 150 W.
Foothill Blvd (now called Altadena Drive) in
Altadena (c. 1945), and Bob built one shortly
after at 4726 Jessica Drive in Eagle Rock.
74b. Walter Wolf, Jr., in his essay, "A Man and
his Wheels," states that his father built and
opened the shop in the spring of 1931, "on a sandy
lot a few doors south of the main intersection in
town, one long block from the ocean." When he
built it, the family lived in a house about two
miles away. But in the fall of 1932, they moved to
a "house on Hermosa Avenue, just three blocks"
from the waffle shop.
75. Gertrude was the widow of William Baxter Keyt
(3/16/1860-9/2/1911), an affluent Denver dentist
and one of the earliest graduates of the
University of Colorado.
76. Letter from Gene Ernst to Ken Wolf: 7/31/98.
Helen's widowed mother Mima (a name given
to her my her son Tom when he was a small boy)
rented a small apartment in downtown Glendale.
Walter Wolf, Jr., "A Man and his Wheels."
76a. According to family lore, Margaret's gift
came at the price of family harmony. Helen's
younger brother Tom, charged by Margaret with the
responsibility of managing the money and the
purchase, felt entitled to a portion of the money
himself, so he used part of it to make a down
payment on a home for his family before giving the
rest to his sister. This reduced amount was not
enough for Helen to secure ownership of the house
that she and her family were renting at the time,
so she settled for the house Roberta Street in
Glendale. The relationship between brother and
sister never fully recovered from this, though
"Uncle Tom" would remain close to his nephews,
particularly Baxter, who found Tom to be something
of a father figure in the absence of his own dad.
77. In a letter to W. John Wolf, February 27,
78. This strikes his children as odd, since they
remember him chewing his cigars, never actually
79. His body was cremated at Chapel of the Pines
three days after his death.
80. Who was her ex-husband Walter's
81. The grandson of William and Betty